Jones's work was formed by his Welsh heritage and his Catholicism. T.S. Eliot considered Jones to be a writer of major importance, and his work The Anathemata was considered by W.H. Auden to be the best long poem written in English in the 20th century.
Family, youth, education Edit
Jones was born in 1896 in Arabin Road, Brockley, Kent, now a suburb of South East London, and later lived in nearby Howson Road. His father, James Jones, was born in Flintshire, North Wales, to a Welsh-speaking family; he was discouraged from speaking Welsh by his father, who, in common with many Welsh parents of the time, believed that habitual use of the language would only hold his child back in his career. James Jones moved to London to work as a printer's overseer for the Christian Herald Press, and it was here that he met his wife, Alice, a Londoner born and bred. They had 3 children, Harold (who died in his late teens of tuberculosis), Alice, and Walter David, later known solely as David.
Jones exhibited artistic promise at an early age, even entering his drawings into exhibitions of children's artwork. He wrote that from the age of 6 he knew that he would devote his life to art. At 14, he persuaded his parents to allow him to abandon traditional education for art school, and in 1909, he entered the Camberwell Art School, where he was introduced to the work of the Impressionists and Pre-Raphaelites.
With the outbreak of the First World War, Jones enlisted with the Royal Welch Fusiliers and served on the Western Front from 1915 to 1918 with the 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division. His experiences in the trenches were to prove extremely important in his later painting and poetry, especially his involvement in the fight at Mametz Wood.
After the war, Jones entered the Westminster School of Art, where he developed an interest in Post-Impressionism and studied under the English artist Walter Sickert, among other influential teachers. He also became increasingly attracted by Roman Catholicism, and in 1921 he converted, choosing "Michael" as his confirmation name. It was probably the priest who received Jones into the Church, Father John O'Connor (in fact the model for G.K. Chesterton's Father Brown character), who suggested that he contact the Catholic artist Eric Gill. Gill ran the Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic, based on the medieval guild model, in Ditchling, Sussex. Jones joined the guild and learned wood and copper engraving as well as experimenting with wood carving. Jones soon began producing book illustrations for the St. Dominic's Press, and he would later illustrate for The Golden Cockerel Press, for whom he engraved the Cockerel itself in 1925.
Eric Gill split with the Guild of SS. Joseph and Dominic and moved with his family and some followers to Capel-y-ffin, a village in southern Wales, to pursue a rural way of life. Jones spent much of the years 1924 to 1927 living with the Gills and assorted hangers-on in a rambling former monastery just outside Capel-y-ffin. He had already become engaged to Gill's middle daughter, Petra, whose characteristic long neck and high forehead continued as standard female features in Jones's artwork for the rest of his career, even though his engagement to her did not last more than a couple of years. Jones continued to visit his family home in Brockley until the mid 1930s and some of his sketches depict the house and garden.
Jones's major illustrated series include wood engravings produced for editions of The Book of Jonah, The Chester Play Of The Deluge, Aesop's Fables and Gulliver's Travels as well as for a Welsh translation of the Book of Ecclesiastes, Llyfr y Pregethwr. He produced an important group of copperplate engravings for an edition of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. He also executed commissions for 1-off engravings such as his illustration for T.S. Eliot's The Cultivation of Christmas Trees.
Despite his success and growing reputation as an illustrator, Jones seems to have become disaffected by the medium. He professed great disappointment in the way that his illustrations for Gulliver's Travels had been subsequently hand-coloured by art students, and complained about the reproduction of the very dark wood engravings for The Chester Play of The Deluge. This may have influenced his decision later in life to concentrate on painting. His style changed over time from more traditional watercolour landscapes to a unique mixture of pencil and watercolour resulting in dense and busy works full of symbolism. His best-known paintings include early seascapes such as "Manawydan's Glass Door" and later works on legendary subjects, such as Trystan ac Esyllt (Tristan and Iseult). He is also much admired for a genre that he devised later in life, which he termed "painted inscriptions", and these exert a continuing influence on calligraphers.
Although he had been trying to write about his wartime experiences for some time, it was not until 1937 that Jones published his first literary effort. In Parenthesis, which was published by Faber and Faber with an introduction by T. S. Eliot, was written in a mixture of verse and prose: it defies categorization as either poem or novel, and critics still differ as to what term best applies. Jones's literary debut won praise from critics and admiration from fellow-poets such as T.S. Eliot and W.B. Yeats, as well as garnering the Hawthornden Prize in the following year. Jones's style can best be described as High Modernism; the poem draws on literary influences from the 6th-century Welsh epic Y Gododdin to Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur to try to make sense of the carnage he witnessed in the trenches.
His next book, The Anathemata, appeared in 1952 (again published by Faber). Inspired in part by a visit to Palestine during which he was struck by the historic parallels between the British and Roman occupations of the region, the book draws on materials from early British history and mythology and the history and myths of the Mediterranean region to explore the possibility of small cultures resisting the power of empire. The poem received mixed reviews in the press, but was acclaimed by other literary artists such as W.H. Auden, Kathleen Raine and William Carlos Williams.
For the rest of his life, Jones worked on a long poem, of which The Anathemata was intended to form part. Sections of the incomplete work were published as individual poems, mainly in the London literary magazine Agenda, but in 1974, they were collected for publication in book form as The Sleeping Lord, and other fragments (again under Faber's auspices).
Jones wrote a number of essays on questions of art, literature, religion and history. He wrote introductions for a few books such as a new edition of George Borrow's Wild Wales; he gave radio talks on the BBC Third Programme; he even tried his hand at an extended consideration of Coleridge's poem for a reprinting of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner featuring his own introduction and illustrations with a series of copper engravings. His essays were published in two collections, Epoch and Artist (Faber, 1959) and The Dying Gaul -- another posthumous volume edited by a close friend and published by Faber in 1978. The best summary of David Jones' attitude to art and religion is contained in his essay, "Art and Sacrament" (included in Epoch and Artist), which explores the meaning of signs and symbols in everyday life, relates them to Roman Catholic teachings such as the dogma of transubstantiation, and argues that human beings are the only animals which create "gratuitous" works, thus making them creators analogous to God.
Jones died in Harrow, Middlesex in 1974. His grave can be found in Brockley and Ladywell Cemeteries, Lewisham, SE13, near Brockley.
A posthumous volume of previously-unseen materials was edited by Harman Grisewood and Rene Hague, and was published by Agenda Editions as The Roman Quarry.
In 2002 the text of 3 short poems was published for the first time in Wedding Poems, edited by Thomas Dilworth. 2 of these poems ("Prothalamion" and "Epithalamion", amounting to 271 lines) had been written while living in London during the Blitz, for the marriage of Harman Grisewood to Margaret Bailey. The 3rd poem, "The Brenner" (24 lines), had been written on 18 March 1940 to mark the meeting of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler on the Brenner Pass. According to their editor, the publication of these poems brought into print "all the known completed poetry by David Jones".
Jones was a complex artist and his achievements are unusual, if not unique, in that he created admired and generally recognised important works both in the field of poetry and in the visual arts. However, according to the poet and critic Kathleen Raine, despite the supreme quality of his art... he has never at any time been a widely-read, still less a fashionable, writer, nor is he ever likely to become so for his work is too subtle and learned for popular tastes (Sewanee Review, 1967).
In 1938 T. S. Eliot called In Parenthesis a 'work of genius', and Graham Greene, in 1980, "among the great poems of the century". W. H. Auden regarded The Anathemata as "one of the most important poems of our time", and called it in 1977, "probably the finest long poem in English" of the twentieth century. In 1962 Igor Stravinsky considered Jones "perhaps the greatest living writer in English", and in 1964 Herbert Read called him "one of the greatest writers of our time".
After the death of Jones in 1974, his reputation declined. Artists who engaged with history and myth were not thought to be in tune with the times, either in poetry or art. Literary references in painting were anathema.
A number of major exhibitions of David Jones's paintings were mounted as part of the commemorations for with the centenary of the First World War, notably Vision and Memory at Pallant House in Chichester. At the same time much of his poetry was reissued, and subsequently a rapid reassessment has taken place, with new generations discovering his work. Since 2014 Jones's reputation has soared and he is again being recognized as an original and important poet and visual artist of the 20th century.
In 1974 Jones was made a Companion of Honour.
On 11 November 1985, Jones was among 16 Great War poets commemorated on a slate stone unveiled in Westminster Abbey's Poet's Corner. The inscription on the stone was written by a fellow Great War poet, Wilfred Owen. It reads: "My subject is War, and the pity of War. The Poetry is in the pity."
In popular cultureEdit
Douglas Cleverdon produced dramatized readings of In Parenthesis and The Anathemata for the BBC Third Programme.
The impact of British television documentaries about the War Poets has also brought his work to wider attention, in particular War of Words: Soldier-Poets of the Somme, which was broadcast on BBC TV, with a narration by Michael Sheen.
- In Parenthesis = Seinnyessit e gledyf ym penn mameu. London: Faber, 1937.
- The Anathemata: Fragments of an attempted writing. London: Faber, 1952.
- The Sleeping Lord, and other fragments. London: Faber, 1974.
- The Grail Mass, and other works (edited by Thomas Goldpaugh; Jamie Callison). London & New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019.
- Epoch and Artist: Selected writings (edited by Harman Grisewood). London: Faber, 1959.
- David Jones on Religion, Politics, and Culture: Unpublished prose (edited by Thomas Berenato, Anne Price-Owen, & Kathleen Henderson Staudt). London: Bloomsbury, 2018.
- David Jones 1895-1974 (edited by Paul Hills). London: Anthony d'Offay, 1979.
- David Jones (1895-1974) (edited by David Blamires). London: Austin/Desmond Fine Art, 1989.
- Writings and Drawings. Cardiff: National Museum of Wales / Welsh Arts Council, 1973.
- Introducing David Jones: A selection of his writings (edited by John Matthias). London: Faber, 1980.
- Dai Greatcoat: A self-portrait of David Jones in his letters (edited by Rene Hague). London: Faber, 1980.
- Alldritt, Keith, David Jones: Writer and Artist Constable, London, 2003, ISBN 1-84119-379-8
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Thomas Dilworth (2012). David Jones in the Great War. Enitharmon. ISBN 978-1-907587-24-5.
- ↑ The Art of David Jones: Vision and memory, Ariane Bankes & Paul Hills, Lund Humphries, 2015, 164.
- ↑ Michael Prodger (4 December 2015). "The practical yet mystical magic of David Jones". New Statesman. http://www.newstatesman.com/culture/art-design/2015/12/practical-yet-mystical-magic-david-jones. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- ↑ The Art of David Jones: Vision and Memory, Ariane Bankes and Paul Hills, Lund Humphries, 2015 pp 164
- ↑ Matthew Sperling (3 October 2015). "Time is Ripe for a David Jones Revival". Apollo. http://www.apollo-magazine.com/time-is-ripe-for-a-david-jones-revival/. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- ↑ Mark Sheerin (27 October 2015). "Rediscovering genius:David Jones at Pallant House and Ditchling Museum of Art + Craft". Culture 24. http://www.culture24.org.uk/art/painting-and-drawing/art540151. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- ↑ Paul Keegan, London Review of Books, Vol. 41, No. 21 p. 15, 7 November 2019.
- ↑ http://net.lib.byu.edu/english/wwi/poets/poets.html
- ↑ http://net.lib.byu.edu/english/wwi/poets/Preface.html
- ↑ 
- ↑ Search results = au:David Jones 1895, WorldCat, OCLC Online Computer Library Center Inc. Web, Nov. 29, 2019.
- David Jones at Amazon.com
- David Jones at My Poetic Side
- "In Parenthesis: in praise of the Somme's forgotten poet" at The Guardian
- David Jones Official website
- Examples of Jones' work at the Tate Gallery
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