File:Printing towns incunabula.svg

The global spread of the printing press began with the invention of the printing press with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany (circa 1439), and ended with the adoption of Western printing technology in all world regions by the end of the 19th century.

The operation of a press became so synonymous with the enterprise of printing that it lent its name to an entire new branch of media, the publishing press (see list of newspapers by date).[1]

Spread of the Gutenberg press Edit

Germany Edit

File:DBP 1954 198 Gutenberg.jpg

Gutenberg's first major print work was the 42-line Bible in Latin, printed probably between 1452 and 1454 in the German city of Mainz. After Gutenberg lost a lawsuit against his investor Johann Fust, Fust put Gutenberg's employee Peter Schöffer in charge of the print shop. Thereupon Gutenberg established a new one with the financial backing of another money lender. With Gutenberg's monopoly revoked, and the technology no longer secret, printing spread throughout Germany and beyond, diffused first by emigrating German printers, but soon also by foreign apprentices.

Europe Edit

In rapid succession, printing presses were set up in Central and Western Europe. Major towns, in particular, functioned as centers of diffusion (Cologne 1466, Rome 1467, Venice 1469, Paris 1470, Cracow 1473, London 1477). In 1481, barely 30 years after the publication of the B42, the small Netherlands already featured printing shops in 21 cities and towns, while Italy and Germany each had shops in about 40 towns at that time. According to one estimate, "by 1500 1000 printing presses were in operation throughout Western Europe and had produced 8 million books."[2] According to another, the output was in the order of twenty million volumes and rose in the 16th century tenfold to between 150 and 200 million copies.[3] Germany and Italy were considered the two main centres of printing in terms of quantity and quality.

Rest of the world Edit

The near-simultaneous discovery of sea routes to the West (Christopher Columbus, 1492) and East (Vasco da Gama, 1498) and the subsequent establishment of trade links greatly facilitated the global spread of Gutenberg-style printing. Traders, colonists, but, perhaps most, missionaries exported printing presses to the new European oversea domains, setting up new print shops and distributing printing material. In the Americas, the first extra-European print shop was founded in Mexico City in 1544 (1539?), and soon after Jesuits started operating the first printing press in Asia (Goa, 1556).

For a long time however, movable type printing remained mainly the business of Europeans working from within the confines of their colonies. According to Suraiya Faroqhi, lack of interest and religious reasons were among the reasons for the slow adoption of the printing press outside Europe: Thus, the printing of Arabic, after encountering strong opposition by Muslim legal scholars and the manuscript scribes, remained prohibited in the Ottoman empire between 1483 and 1729, initially even on penalty of death,[4][5] while some movable Arabic type printing was done by Pope Julius II (1503−1512) for distribution among Middle Eastern Christians,[6] and the oldest Qur’an printed with movable type was produced in Venice in 1537/1538 for the Ottoman market.

In India, reports are that Jesuits "presented a polyglot Bible to the Emperor Akbar in 1580 but did not succeed in arousing much curiosity."[7] But also practical reasons seem to have played a role. The English East India Company, for example, brought a printer to Surat in 1675, but was not able to cast type in Indian scripts, so the venture failed.[7] A notable exception was the adoption by the Cherokee Indian Elias Boudinot who published the tribe's first newspaper Cherokee Phoenix from 1828, partly in his native language, using the Cherokee alphabet recently invented by his compatriot Sequoyah.

In the 19th century, the arrival of the Gutenberg-style press to the shores of Tahiti (1818), Hawaii (1821) and other Pacific islands, marked the end of a global diffusion process which had begun almost 400 years earlier. At the same time, the 'old style' press (as the Gutenberg model came to be termed in the 19th century), was already in the process of being displaced by industrial machines like the steam powered press (1812) and the rotary press (1833), which radically departed from Gutenberg's design, but were still of the same development line.[8]

Dates by location Edit

The following represents a selection:[9]

Germany, Austria and German printers in Central Europe Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1452–53[10] Mainz Johannes Gutenberg, Peter Schöffer, Johann Fust (investor) Gutenberg Bible
~1457[10] Bamberg Albrecht Pfister, Johann Sensenschmid (from 1480) Pfister: first woodcut book illustration c. 1461[11]
Not later than 1460[10] Strassburg Johannes Mentelin In 1605, Johann Carolus publishes the German Relation aller Fuernemmen und gedenckwuerdigen Historien (Collection of all distinguished and commemorable news), recognized by the World Association of Newspapers as the first newspaper.[12]
~1465[10] Cologne Ulrich Zell
1468[10] Augsburg Günther Zainer
Not later than 1469[10] Nuremberg Johann Sensenschmid, Johannes Regiomontanus (1472–75), Anton Koberger (1473–1513)
1471[10] Speyer
1472[10] Lauingen
1473[10] Esslingen
1473[10] Merseburg
1473[10] Ulm
~1473–74[10] Erfurt
~1474[10] Lübeck 1488, Missale Aboense and other versions, first books for the Scandinavian and Finnish markets, by Bartholomeus Ghotan
1475[13] Breslau (now Wrocław) Kasper Elyan of Glogau [1] Kasper's print shop remained operational until 1483 with an overall output of 11 titles.[13]
1475[10] Trento
~1475[10] Blaubeuren
~1475[10] Rostock
1476[10] Reutlingen
~1478–79[10] Memmingen Albrecht Kunne
1479[10] Würzburg Georg Reyser
1479[10] Magdeburg
1480[10] Passau
1480[10] Leipzig Andreas Friesner
~1480[10] Eichstätt
1482[10] Vienna Johann Winterburger
1482[10] Munich Johann Schauer
1482[10] Heidelberg
1484[10] Ingolstadt
1485[10] Münster
~1485[10] Regensburg
1486[14] Schleswig Stephan Arndes
~1486[10] Stuttgart
~1488[10] Hamburg
1489[10] Hagenau
1491[10] Freiburg
1492[10] Marienburg Jakob Karweyse Only two editions printed[15]
1499[10] Danzig Franz Rhode 1538: Wisby'sches Waterrecht, 1540: Narratio Prima

Rest of Europe Edit

Italy Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1465[16] Subiaco Arnold Pannartz, Konrad Sweynheym
1467[16] Rome Ulrich Hahn, Arnold Pannartz, Konrad Sweynheym (from 1467)
1469[16] Venice Johann von Speyer, shortly afterwards Nikolaus Jenson from Tours, Aldus Manutius Johann was granted a privilege for 5 years for movable type printing by the Senate, but died soon after.[17] In 1501, Ottaviano Petrucci produced the first book of sheet music printed from movable type.
1470[16] Milan Filippo de Lavagna, Antonio Zaroto, shortly afterwards Waldarfer von Regensburg
1470[16] Naples
1471[16] Florence Demetrius Damilas Earliest printing in Greek
1471[16] Genoa
1471[10] Ferrara
1471[16] Bologna Probably in 1477, claimed to have the first engraved illustrations,[18] although the 1476 Boccaccio edition by Colard Mansion in Bruges already had copper engravings[19]
1471[10] Padua
1471[10] Treviso
1472[10] Parma
1473[10] Pavia
1473[10] Brescia
~1473–74[10] Modena
1484[10] Siena

In the 15th century, printing presses were established in 77 Italian cities and towns. At the end of the following century, 151 locations in Italy had seen at one time printing activities, of which 130 (86%) were north of Rome.[20] During these two centuries a total of 2894 printers were active in Italy, with only 216 of them located in southern Italy. Ca. 60% of the Italian printing shops were situated in six cities (Venice, Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna and Florence), with the concentration of printers in Venice being particularly high (ca. 30%).[21]

Switzerland Edit

Date City Printer Comment
~1468[10] Basel Berthold Ruppel
1470[10] Beromünster Helias Helye
~1474[10] Burgdorf
1478[10] Geneva Adam Steinschauwer
~1479[10] Zürich
1577 Schaffhausen
1578 St. Gallen
1585 Fribourg
1664 Einsiedeln

France Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1470[10] Paris Ulrich Gering, Martin Crantz, Michael Friburger
1473[10] Lyon Guillaume Le Roy, Buyer
~1475[10] Toulouse
1476–77[10] Angers
~1477–78[10] Vienne
1478–79[10] Chablis
1479[10] Poitiers
1480[10] Caen
1480–82[10] Rouen
1483[10] Troyes
1484–85[10] Rennes
1486[10] Abbeville
~1486–88[10] Besançon
1490–91[10] Orléans
1491[10] Dijon
1491[10] Angoulême
1493[10] Nantes
1493–94[10] Tours
1495–96[10] Limoges
1497[10] Avignon
1500[10] Perpignan

Apart from the cities above, there was a small number of lesser towns which set up printing presses.

Spain Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1472[10] Segovia Johannes Parix Sinodal de Aguilafuente
~1473[10] Barcelona
~1473–74[10] Valencia
~1473–74[10] Seville
1475[10] Zaragoza Matthias Flander, Paul Hurus
~1480[10] Salamanca
1485[10] Burgos
1496[10] Granada Meinrad Ungut, Hans Pegnitzer
1499[10] Montserrat Oldest publishing house in the world still running

Belgium Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1473[22] Aalst Dirk Martens
1473–74[10] Leuven Johann von Westphalen
~1473–74[10] Bruges Colard Mansion Worked with, and (?) trained William Caxton, printing the first books in English (Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye) and also French, as well as the first book to use engravings for illustrations.
1475–76[10] Brussels
1480[10] Oudenaarde Arend De Keysere
1481[10] Antwerp Matt. Van der Goes
1483[10] Ghent Arend De Keysere

The Netherlands Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1473[10] Utrecht
1477[10] Gouda Gerard Leeu
1477[10] Deventer Richard Paffroad
1477[10] Zwolle
1477[10] Delft Jacob Jacobzoon
1483[10] Haarlem Jacob Bellaert

In 1481, printing was already done in 21 towns and cities.

Hungary Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1473[23] Buda
(now Budapest)
Andreas Hess? The first work printed on Hungarian soil was the Latin history book Chronica Hungarorum published on 5 June 1473.[23]
1561[24] Debrecen The town becoming a stronghold of Calvinism in Hungary during the Reformation, the press was particularly active in service of the Calvinist cause.[24]

In the 16th century, a total of 20 print shops were active in 30 different places in Hungary, as some of them were moving several times due to political instability.[24]

Poland Edit

Main article: Early printing in Poland
Date City Printer Comment
1473[25] Cracow Kasper Straube The oldest printed work in Poland is the Latin Calendarium cracoviense (Cracovian Calendar), a single-sheet astronomical almanac for the year 1474. Although Straube continued to published in Cracow until 1477, printing became permanently established in Cracow, and Poland, only after 1503.[15] In 1491, the first book in Cyrillic script was published by Schweipolt Fiol from Franconia.[26] In 1513, Florian Ungler printed Hortulus Animae, the first book in the Polish language.
1593 Lwów Matthias Bernhart
1625 Warsaw

In the 15th and 16th centuries printing presses were also established in Poznań, Lwów, Brześć Litewski and Vilnius.[13]

Bohemia Edit

Date City Printer Comment
~1475–76[10] Pilsen Mikuláš Bakalář (name known since 1488) Statuta Ernesti (1476, Latin), The New Testament (1476, two editions in Czech), Passionale, The Chronicle of Troyes (? 1476, Czech)
1486[10] Brünn Conradus Stahel, Matthias Preinlein Agenda Olomucensis 1486 and further 20, partly small prints in Latin until 1488.[27]
1487[10] Prague The Chronicle of Troyes 1487, Psalter 1487, The Bible 1488 (all in Czech); since 1512 printing in Hebrew, since 1517 in Cyrillic, too.
1489[10] Kuttenberg Martin z Tišnova The Bible (in Czech)

England Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1476[28] Westminster William Caxton The first dated prints in England are an indulgence dating to 13 December 1476 (date written in by hand), and the Dicts or Sayings, completed on 18 November 1477. Between 1472 and 1476, Caxton had already published several English works on the continent (see Bruges above).[28]
1478[10] Oxford Theoderich Rood
~1479[10] St Albans 'Schoolmaster' The St Albans Press produced eight known prints including The Chronicles of England.[10]
1480[10] London John Lettou, William Machlinia, Wynkyn de Worde

Denmark Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1482[14] Odense Johann Snell Snell was the first to introduce printing both in Denmark and Sweden.[14]
1493[14] Copenhagen Gottfried von Ghemen Von Ghemen published in Copenhagen from 1493 to 1495 and from 1505 to 1510. In the meantime, he was active in the Dutch town of Leiden. For 200 years, official policy confined printing in Denmark largely to Copenhagen.[29]

Sweden Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1483[14] Stockholm Johann Snell
Before 1495[10] Vadstena
1510 Uppsala

Portugal Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1487[30] Faro Samuel Gacon (also called Porteiro) The country's first printed book was the Hebrew Pentateuch, published by the Jew Samuel Gacon in southern Portugal, after having fled from the Spanish Inquisition.[30]
1488[31] Chaves [31] Unknown [31] According to the German scholar Horch the Sacramental is the first book printed in Portuguese, and not Ludolphus de Saxonia's Livro de Vita Christi of 1495 as previously assumed.[31]
1489[10] Lisboa Rabbi Zorba, Raban Eliezer
1492[10] Leiria
1494[10] Braga
1536 Coimbra
1571 Vizeu
1583 Angra, Azoren
1622 Oporto

Croatia Edit

Date City Printer Comment
~1491[10] Kosinj, Lika
1494[10] Senj

Serbia and Montenegro Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1493–94[10] Cetinje Đurađ IV Crnojević, Makarije Đurađ IV Crnojević used the printing press brought to Cetinje by his father Ivan I Crnojević to print the first books in southeastern Europe, in 1493. The Crnojević printing press operated from 1493 through 1496, turning out religious books of which five have been preserved: Oktoih prvoglasnik, Oktoih petoglasnik, Psaltir, Molitvenik and Četvorojevanđelje (the first Bible in Serbian language). Đurađ managed the printing of the books, wrote prefaces and afterwords, and developed sophisticated tables of Psalms with the lunar calendar. The books from the Crnojević press were printed in two colors, red and black, and were richly ornamented. They served as models for many of the subsequent books printed in Cyrillic.
1552 Belgrade Trojan Gundulić Četvorojevanđelje, Serbulje

By 1500, the cut-off point for incunabula, 236 towns in Europe had presses, and it is estimated that twenty million books had been printed for a European population of perhaps seventy million.[11]

Scotland Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1507[32] (the earliest surviving item is dated 4 April 1508) Sou Gait (now called the Cowgate), Edinburgh Walter Chepman and Androw Myllar William Elphinstone, the Bishop of Aberdeen, was anxious to get a breviary published (see Aberdeen Breviary), and petitioned King James IV to have a printing press set up. Myllar had previously been involved with printing in France, where Scots authors had traditionally had their books printed (see Auld Alliance). The earliest works were mainly small books (approximately 15 cm), but at least one book was printed in folio format, Blind Harry's The Wallace.[33]
1552 St Andrews[34] John Scot[35]
1571 Stirling Robert Lekprevik
1622 Aberdeen Edward Raban
1638 Glasgow George Anderson
1651 Leith Evan Tyler
1685 Campbeltown unknown printer
1694 Maybole unknown printer

Romania Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1508 Targoviste Hieromonk Makarije Macarie is brought into Wallachia by the prince Radu cel Mare. The first printed book in Romania is made in 1508, Liturghierul. Octoihul is also printed in 1510, and Evangheliarul is printed in 1512[36]
1534 Braşov By the time it was the part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom
1545 Targoviste Dimitrie Liubavici Mostly religious books are printed, among them being Molitvelnic.[37] Interestingly, books printed in Wallachia were also reprinted for use in Moldavia, which at the time did not have its own press.
1550[38] Klausenburg (Cluj-Napoca) By the time it was the part of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom

Greece Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1515 Saloniki
1817 Corfu

Lithuania Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1522 Vilnius Francysk Skaryna The Little Travel Guide

Iceland Edit

Date City Printer Comment
ca. 1530[39] Holar Jon Matthiasson (Swede) Press imported on the initiative of Bishop Jon Arason. First known local print is the Latin songbook Breviarium Holense of 1534.[39]

Norway Edit

Date City Printer Comment
mid-16th century Trondheim
1644 Oslo

Ireland Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1551 ? Humphrey Powell

Russia Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1553−4[26] Moscow Unknown According to recent research, the Gospel Book and six others published then.[26]
1564[40] Moscow Ivan Fyodorov (printer) Acts of the Apostles (Apostol) is the first dated book printed in Russia.[40]
1711[41] St Petersburg
1815 Astrachan

Until the reign of Peter the Great printing in Russia remained confined to the print office established by Fedorov in Moscow. In the 18th century, annual printing output gradually rose from 147 titles in 1724 to 435 (1787), but remained constrained by state censorship and widespread illiteracy.[42]

Latvia Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1588 Riga Nikolaus Mollin

Ukraine Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1616 Lviv Hovhannes Karmatanents, Armenian The first book published there was Սաղմոսարան (Saghmosaran – the Psalter) in Armenian

Estonia Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1632 Tartu Jacobus Pistorius (Jacob Becker) PostOrdnung (28.09.1632) was the first document printed in Tartu with date and printers name. The printing press operated in connection with Tartu University (Academia Gustaviana) that was opened on the same year. The reverse side of the document contains a resolution of Johan Skytte about Academia Gustaviana.[43]

Finland Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1642 Turku Peder Walde, Swedish The print shop was set up at The Royal Academy of Turku which was the first university (created in 1640) in what is now Finland

Georgia Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1701 Tbilisi Mihail Ishtvanovitch

Armenia Edit

Main article: Armenian printing
Date City Printer Comment
1771 Vagharshapat St. Grigor Lusavorich Simeon Yerevantsi (Catholicos of Armenia) The first published book in Etchmiadzin was titled Սաղմոսարան (Psalms).[44] The printing house was St. Grigor Lusavorich.

Greenland Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1860 Godthaab

Rest of the world Edit

Latin America Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1539[45] Mexico City Mexico Juan Pablos of Brescia[46] at the House of the First Print Shop in the Americas Established by the archbishop Juan de Zumárraga, using Hans Cromberger from Seville, the first book printed was Breve y Mas Compendiosa Doctrina Christina.[46] Between 1539 and 1600 presses produced 300 editions, and in the following century 2,007 editions were printed.[47] In the 16th century, more than 31% of locally produced imprints were in native Indian languages, mostly religious texts and grammars or vocabularies of Amerindian languages. In the 17th century, this rate dropped to 3% of total output.[48]
1581[45] Lima Peru Presses produced 1,106 titles between 1584 and 1699.[49]
1640[45] Puebla Mexico
1660[45] Guatemala City Guatemala
1700[45] Jesuit mission of Paraguay Paraguay Established with local materials by local Guaraní workers who had converted to Christianity.[45]
1707[45] Havana Cuba
1736[45] Bogotá Colombia
1759[45] Quito Ecuador
1776[45] Santiago de Chile Chile Press functioned only briefly.[45] In 1812 permanently established.
1780[45] Buenos Aires Argentina
1807 Montevideo Uruguay
1808[50] Rio de Janeiro Brazil
1808[45] Caracas Venezuela
1810 Valparaíso Chile

Africa Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1494 São Tomé and Príncipe Valentin (of Moravia) Early German printers[51]
1516 Fez Morocco Jewish Refugees who had worked for the printer Rabbi Eliezer Toledano in Lisbon[52]
As early as 16th century Mozambique Portuguese
Luanda Angola Portuguese
Malindi Kenya Portuguese
1795 Cape Town South Africa JC Ritter
Almanach voor't jaar 1796.[53][54] The possibility of printing may be as early as 1784 when JC Ritter arrived in the Cape but no earlier output has surfaced.[55] JC Ritter is also said to have printed Almanacs for 1795 to 1797 suggesting a start to printing of 1794[56]
1798 Cairo Egypt French
c.1825 Madagascar
1833 Mauritius
1855[57] Scheppmansdorf
(now: Rooibank)
Namibia Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt On 29 June 1855, Protestant missionary Kleinschmidt published 300 copies of Luther's catechism in the Nama language which represent the first printed works in that tongue. Political unrest seems to have prevented further printing activities. The press was reported as being functional as late as 1868, but whether printing was resumed is unknown.[57]
1892 Salisbury Southern Rhodesia
(now: Zimbabwe)
Rhodesia Herald in print, may have started earlier [55]

South Asia Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1550 Goa Portuguese India Jesuits The press was attached to St Paul's college
1712 Tranquebar India Danish-Halle/SPCK Mission
1737 ? Sri Lanka
1772 Madras India Shahamir Shahamirian, Armenian The first book published here was Այբբենարան (Aybbenaran - Reading Primer) in Armenian
1779 Calcutta India Charl. Wilkins
1792 Bombay India
1800 Serampore Danish India Baptist Missionary Society Printing Bibles and books in several Indian languages

Ottoman Empire Edit

Date City Printer Comment
1554 Bursa
1567 Constantinople Apkar Tebir, Armenian The first book printed here was Փոքր քերականութիւն (Poqr Qerakanutyun - Brief Armenian Grammar) in Armenian
1610 St. Antonius Monastery, Qozhaya Set up by Maronites in Lebanon
1729[58] Constantinople Ibrahim Muteferrika First press for printing in Arabic established in the Ottoman Empire, against opposition from the calligraphers and parts of the Ulama. It operated until 1742, producing altogether seventeen works, all of which were concerned with non-religious, utilitarian matters.[59]
1759 Smyrna (Izmir) Markos, Armenian
1779[60] Constantinople James Mario Matra (Briton) Abortive attempt to revive printing in the Ottoman lands[60]

Due to religious qualms, Sultan Bayezid II and successors prohibited printing in Arabic script in the Ottoman empire from 1483 on penalty of death, but printing in other scripts was done by Jews as well as the Greek and Armenian communities (1515 Saloniki, 1554 Bursa (Adrianople), 1552 Belgrade, 1658 Smyrna). In 1727, Sultan Achmed III gave his permission for the establishment of the first legal print house for printing secular works in Arabic script (religious publications still remained forbidden),[59] but printing activities did not really start off until the 19th century.

South East Asia Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1590 Manila Philippines
1668 Batavia Indonesia
1818 Sumatra Island Indonesia

Far East Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1590 Nagasaki Japan Alessandro Valignano The Jesuits in Nagasaki established The Jesuit Mission Press in Japan and printed a number of books in romanised Japanese language.
1833[61] Macao China The first presses were imported by Western priests for their missionary work from Europa and America. The earliest known, an albion press, was set up in the Portuguese colony Macao and later moved to Canton and Ningbo.[61]
1883[62] Seoul Korea Inoue Kakugoro (Japanese) The first printing press was imported from Japan for publishing Korea's first Korean-language newspaper Hansong Sunbo. After the press was destroyed by conservatists, Inoue returned with a new one from Japan, reviving the paper as a weekly under the name Hansong Chubo. Presses were also established in Seoul in 1885, 1888 and 1891 by Western missionaries.[62] However, the earliest printing press was apparently introduced by the Japanese in the treaty port of Pusan in 1881 to publish Korea's first newspaper, the bilingual Chosen shinpo.[63]

Middle East Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1636 New Julfa, Isfahan Persia Khachatur Kesaratsi, Armenian The first book printed here was Սաղմոս ի Դավիթ (Saghmos i Davit - Psalter) in Armenian
1820 Tehran Persia
Tabriz Persia

North America Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1638 Cambridge USA Stephen Daye, Samuel Green (from 1649)
1686 Philadelphia USA William Bradford
1693 New York USA William Bradford
1735 Germantown USA Christoph Sauer
1752 Halifax Canada John Bushell The Halifax Gazette, Canada's first newspaper was published initially in this year.
1828 New Echota, Arkansas USA Elias Boudinot (Cherokee) Boudinot published the Cherokee Phoenix as first newspaper of the tribe.
1846 San Francisco USA
1853 Oregon USA
1858 Vancouver Island Canada

Australia & Oceania Edit

Date City Country Printer Comment
1795 ? Australia
1802 Sydney Australia George Howe
1818 Hobart, Tasmania Australia
1818 Tahiti French Polynesia
1821 Hawaii Kingdom of Hawaii
1835 Paihia New Zealand William Colenso The first book was a Maori translation of part of the Bible commissioned by the Church Missionary Society: "Ko nga Pukapuka o Paora te Apotoro ki te Hunga o Epeha o Piripai" (The Epistles of St Paul to the Philippians and the Ephesians).
1836 Maui Kingdom of Hawaii

See also Edit

References Edit

  • Altman, Albert A. (1984), "Korea's First Newspaper: The Japanese Chosen shinpo", The Journal of Asian Studies 43 (4): 685–696 
  • Appel, Klaus (1987), "Die Anfänge des Buchdrucks in Russland in der literaturfähigen Nationalsprache", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 62: 95–103 
  • Blake, Normann F. (1978), "Dating the First Books Printed in English", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 43–50 
  • Bolza, Hans (1967), "Friedrich Koenig und die Erfindung der Druckmaschine", Technikgeschichte 34 (1): 79–89 
  • Borsa, Gedeon (1976), "Druckorte in Italien vor 1601", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 311–314 
  • Borsa, Gedeon (1977), "Drucker in Italien vor 1601", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 166–169 
  • Borsa, Gedeon (1987), "Die volkssprachigen Drucke im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert in Ungarn", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 62: 104–108 
  • Clogg, Richard (1979), "An Attempt to Revive Turkish Printing in Istanbul in 1779", International Journal of Middle East Studies 10 (1): 67–70 
  • Dal, Erik (1987), "Bücher in dänischer Sprache vor 1600", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 62: 37–46 
  • Gerhardt, Claus W. (1971), "Warum wurde die Gutenberg-Presse erst nach über 350 Jahren durch ein besseres System abgelöst?", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 43–57 
  • Gerhardt, Claus W. (1978), "Besitzt Gutenbergs Erfindung heute noch einen Wert?", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 212–217 
  • Horch, Rosemarie Erika (1987), "Zur Frage des ersten in portugiesischer Sprache gedruckten Buches", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 62: 125–134 
  • Krek, Miroslav (1979), "The Enigma of the First Arabic Book Printed from Movable Type", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 38 (3): 203–212 
  • Kvaran, Gudrun (1997), "Die Anfänge der Buchdruckerkunst in Island und die isländische Bibel von 1584", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 72: 140–147 
  • Man, John (2002), The Gutenberg Revolution: The Story of a Genius and an Invention that Changed the World, London: Review, ISBN 978-0747245049 
  • McGovern, Melvin (1967), "Early Western Presses in Korea", Korea Journal: 21–23 
  • Moritz, Walter (1979), "Die Anfänge des Buchdrucks in Südwestafrika/Namibia", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch: 269–276 
  • Watson, William J. (1968), "İbrāhīm Müteferriḳa and Turkish Incunabula", Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (3): 435–441 
  • Wydra, Wieslaw (1987), "Die ersten in polnischer Sprache gedruckten Texte, 1475–1520", Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 62: 88–94 
  • Eisenstein, Elizabeth L., The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Cambridge University Press, September 1980, Paperback, 832 pages, ISBN 0-521-29955-1
  • McLuhan, Marshall, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962) Univ. of Toronto Press (1st ed.); reissued by Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-1818-5
  • Febvre, Lucien & Martin, Henri-Jean, The Coming of the Book: the impact of printing 1450–1800, Verso, London & New York, 1990, ISBN 0-86091-797-5


  1. Weber 2006, p. 387:
    At the same time, then, as the printing press in the physical, technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. The phenomenon of publishing was born.
  2. E. L. Eisenstein: "The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe", Cambridge, 1993 pp. 13–17, quoted in: Angus Maddison: "Growth and Interaction in the World Economy: The Roots of Modernity", Washington 2005, p.17f.
  3. Febvre, Lucien; Martin, Henri-Jean (1976): "The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450–1800", London: New Left Books, quoted in: Anderson, Benedict: "Comunidades Imaginadas. Reflexiones sobre el origen y la difusión del nacionalismo", Fondo de cultura económica, Mexico 1993, ISBN 978-968-16-3867-2, pp. 58f.
  4. Suraiya Faroqhi, Subjects of the Sultan: culture and daily life in the Ottoman Empire, pp, 134-136, I.B.Tauris, 2005, ISBN 1850437602, 9781850437604;The Encyclopaedia of Islam: Fascicules 111-112 : Masrah Mawlid, Clifford Edmund Bosworth
  5. Watson 1968, p. 435; Clogg 1979, p. 67
  6. Krek 1979, p. 203
  7. 7.0 7.1 Angus Maddison: Growth and Interaction in the World Economy: The Roots of Modernity, Washington 2005, p.65
  8. Bolza 1967; Gerhardt 1971; Gerhardt 1978, p. 217
  9. The main source is Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4th edition, 1888–1890, entry "Buchdruckerkunst (Ausbreitung der Erfindung)"
  10. 10.000 10.001 10.002 10.003 10.004 10.005 10.006 10.007 10.008 10.009 10.010 10.011 10.012 10.013 10.014 10.015 10.016 10.017 10.018 10.019 10.020 10.021 10.022 10.023 10.024 10.025 10.026 10.027 10.028 10.029 10.030 10.031 10.032 10.033 10.034 10.035 10.036 10.037 10.038 10.039 10.040 10.041 10.042 10.043 10.044 10.045 10.046 10.047 10.048 10.049 10.050 10.051 10.052 10.053 10.054 10.055 10.056 10.057 10.058 10.059 10.060 10.061 10.062 10.063 10.064 10.065 10.066 10.067 10.068 10.069 10.070 10.071 10.072 10.073 10.074 10.075 10.076 10.077 10.078 10.079 10.080 10.081 10.082 10.083 10.084 10.085 10.086 10.087 10.088 10.089 10.090 10.091 10.092 10.093 10.094 10.095 10.096 10.097 10.098 10.099 10.100 10.101 10.102 10.103 10.104 "Incunabula Short Title Catalogue". British Library. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Fernand Braudel, "Civilization & Capitalism, 15–18th Centuries, Vol 1: The Structures of Everyday Life", William Collins & Sons, London 1981
  12. World Association of Newspapers: "Newspapers: 400 Years Young!"
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Wydra 1987, p. 89
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Dal 1987, p. 37
  15. 15.0 15.1 Wydra 1987, pp. 88f.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 Borsa 1976, p. 313
  17. Helmut Schippel: Die Anfänge des Erfinderschutzes in Venedig, in: Uta Lindgren (Hrsg.): Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation, 4th ed., Berlin 2001, p.540f. ISBN 3-7861-1748-9
  18. David Landau & Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print, Yale, p241, 1996, ISBN 0300068832
  19. Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris
  20. Borsa 1976, p. 314
  21. Borsa 1977, pp. 166–169
  22. "Dirk Martens Website" (in Dutch). 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Borsa 1987, p. 104
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Borsa 1987, p. 107
  25. Wydra 1987, p. 88
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 The European Library
  27. E. Urbánková, Soupis prvotisků českého původu. Praha: SK ČSR 1986
  28. 28.0 28.1 Blake 1978, p. 43
  29. Dal 1987, pp. 37f.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Horch 1987, p. 125
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Horch 1987, p. 132
  32. "Scottish Book Trade Index (SBTI)". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 2008-03-30. ""In September 1507, with Walter Chepman, [Andrew Myllar] received letters patent from James IV of Scotland allowing them to set up the first printing-press in Scotland.""  Template:Dead link
  33. "1508 - Earliest dated Scottish book". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  34. "500 Years of Scottish Printing". Scottish Printing Archival Trust. Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  35. "The Spread of Scottish Printing". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  36. I. Bianu, Psaltirea Scheiana, Bucharest, 1889
  37. Istoria Romaniei, Vol II, p. 684
  38. Borsa 1987, p. 106
  39. 39.0 39.1 Kvaran 1997, p. 140
  40. 40.0 40.1 Appel 1987, p. 95
  41. Appel 1987, p. 97
  42. Appel 1987, pp. 96ff.
  43. Tartu Ülikooli trükikoda 1632–1710: Ajalugu ja trükiste bibliograafia = Druckerei der Universität Dorpat 1632–1710: Geschichte und Bibliographie der Druckschriften. Ene-Lille Jaanson (ed.). Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogu. 2000. ISBN 9985874145. 
  44. Armenology Research National Center
  45. 45.00 45.01 45.02 45.03 45.04 45.05 45.06 45.07 45.08 45.09 45.10 45.11 45.12 Hensley C. Woodbridge & Lawrence S. Thompson, "Printing in Colonial Spanish America", Troy, N.Y., Whitson Publishing Company, 1976, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (278)
  46. 46.0 46.1 "Margarete Rehm: Information und Kommunikation in Geschichte und Gegenwart" (in German). 
  47. Magdalena Chocano Mena, "Colonial Printing and Metropolitan Books: Printed Texts and the Shaping of Scholarly Culture in New Spain: 1539–1700", Colonial Latin American Historical Review 6, No. 1 (1997): 71–72, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (296)
  48. Magdalena Chocano Mena, "Colonial Printing and Metropolitan Books: Printed Texts and the Shaping of Scholarly Culture in New Spain: 1539–1700", Colonial Latin American Historical Review 6, No. 1 (1997): 73&76, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (279)
  49. Pedro Guibovich, "The Printing Press in Colonial Peru: Production Process and Literary Categories in Lima, 1584–1699", Colonial Latin American Review 10, No. 2 (2001): 173, quoted in: Hortensia Calvo, "The Politics of Print: The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America", Book History, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277–305 (296)
  50. Brown University: Impressão Régia in Rio de Janeiro
  51. Ferdinand Geldner, Die Deutschen Inkunabeldrucker, Vol. 2, Stuttgart, 1970, p. 314, quoted in: Man 2002
  52. History of Science-Printing, accessed 2009/05/04
  53. , "Early Cape Printing 1796–1802", South African Library Reprint Series, No. 1, South African Library, Cape Town, (1971)
  54. SH Steinberg, "Five Hundred Years of Printing", Pengiun Books, Middlesex, (1955) 2nd ed. 1961, p.214
  55. 55.0 55.1 , "South Africa in Print", Book Exhibition Committee van Riebeeck Festival, Cape Town, (1952), facing p.157 p.160
  56. Lewin Robinson, A.M. (1979). From Monolith to Microfilm: a story of the recorded word. Cape Town: South African Library. p. 37. ISBN 086968020X. 
  57. 57.0 57.1 Moritz 1979, pp. 269–276
  58. Watson 1968, p. 436; Clogg 1979, p. 67
  59. 59.0 59.1 Watson 1968, p. 436
  60. 60.0 60.1 Clogg 1979, p. 67
  61. 61.0 61.1 Reed, Christopher A.: Gutenberg in Shanghai: Chinese Print Capitalism, 1876–1937, University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver 2005, ISBN 0-7748-1041-6, pp. 25–87 (69)
  62. 62.0 62.1 McGovern 1967, pp. 21–23
  63. Altman 1984, pp. 685–696

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