|Rainer Maria Rilke|
Photograph of Rilke, circa 1900.
December 4 1875|
Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary
December 29 1926 (aged 51)|
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 - 29 December 1926), better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet.
Rilke wrote in both verse and a highly lyrical prose. Among English-language readers, his best-known work is the Duino Elegies; his 2 most famous prose works are the Letters to a Young Poet and the semi-autobiographical Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge. He also wrote more than 400 poems in French, dedicated to his homeland of choice, the canton of Valais in Switzerland.
Rilke was born in Prague, capital of Bohemia (then part of Austria-Hungary, now the Czech Republic). His childhood and youth in Prague were not especially happy. His father, Josef Rilke (1838–1906), became a railway official after an unsuccessful military career. His mother, Sophie ("Phia") Entz (1851-1931), came from a well-to-do Prague family, the Entz-Kinzelbergers, who lived in a house on the Herrengasse (Panská) 8, where René also spent many of his early years. The relationship between Phia and her only son was colored by her mourning for a prior child, a daughter, who had died after only a week of life. During Rilke's early years Phia acted as if she sought to recover the lost girl through the boy by dressing him in girl's clothing. The parents' marriage fell apart in 1884. His parents pressured the poetically and artistically talented youth into entering a military academy, which he attended from 1886 until 1891, when he left due to illness. From 1892 to 1895 he was tutored for the university entrance exam, which he passed in 1895. In 1895 and 1896, he studied literature, art history, and philosophy in Prague and Munich.
In 1897 in Munich, Rainer Maria Rilke met and fell in love with the widely traveled, intellectual woman of letters Lou Andreas-Salomé. Rilke changed his first name from "René" to "Rainer" at Lou's urging because she thought that name more masculine, forceful, and Germanic. His relationship with this married woman, with whom he undertook 2 extensive trips to Russia, lasted until 1900. But even after their separation, Lou continued to be Rilke's most important confidante until the end of his life. Having trained from 1912 to 1913 as a psychoanalyst with Sigmund Freud, she shared her knowledge of psychoanalysis with Rilke.
In 1898, Rilke undertook a journey lasting several weeks to Italy. In 1899, he traveled with Lou and her husband, Friedrich Andreas, to Moscow where he met novelist Leo Tolstoy. Between May and August 1900, a 2nd journey to Russia, accompanied only by Lou, again took him to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, where he met the family of Boris Pasternak and Spiridon Drozhzhin, a peasant poet. Later, "Rilke called two places his home: Bohemia and Russia".
In autumn 1900, Rilke stayed at the artists' colony at Worpswede. (Later, his portrait would be painted by the proto-expressionist Paula Modersohn-Becker, whom he got to know at Worpswede.) It was here that he got to know the sculptor Clara Westhoff, whom he married the following spring. Their daughter Ruth (1901–1972) was born in December 1901. In the summer of 1902, Rilke left home and traveled to Paris to write a monograph on sculptor Auguste Rodin. Before long his wife left their daughter with her parents and joined Rilke there. The relationship between Rilke and Clara Westhoff continued for the rest of his life; a mutually agreed-upon effort at divorce was bureaucratically hindered by Rilke's "official" status as a Catholic, though he was the very opposite of observant.
Initially Rilke had a difficult time in Paris, an experience that he called on in his only novel, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge. At the same time, his encounter with modernism was very stimulating: Rilke became deeply involved in the sculpture of Rodin, and then with the work of Paul Cézanne. For a time he acted as Rodin's secretary, also lecturing and writing a long essay on Rodin and his work. Rodin taught him the value of objective observation, and under this influence Rilke dramatically transformed his poetic style from the subjective and sometimes incantatory language of his earlier work into something quite new in European literature. The result was the New Poems, famous for the "thing-poems" expressing Rilke's rejuvenated artistic vision. The poems of the New Poems and New Poems: The other part are highly wrought, using language and poetic form as a shaped and shaping material; to this extent the poems are often said to be "things" in themselves. During these years, Paris increasingly became the writer's main residence.
The most important works of the Paris period were Neue Gedichte (New Poems) (1907), Der Neuen Gedichte Anderer Teil (Another Part of the New Poems) (1908), the 2 "Requiem" poems (1909), and the novel The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, started in 1904 and completed in January 1910. The Swedish author Mirjam Tapper has edited a book on Rilke's stay in Paris, where she reflected on the many addresses Rilke lived at and tried to find the correlation between his stay there and his poems. The title of the book: Resa med Rilke (Travel with Rilke), Mita bokförlag 2010. A chapter in the book also deals with Rilke's sickness and death.
During the later part of this decade Rilke spent extended periods in Ronda, the famous bull-fighting center in southern Spain. There he kept a permanent room at the Hotel Reina Victoria (built in 1906) where his room remains to this day as he left it, a mini-museum of Rilkeana. According to the hotel's publicity, Rilke wrote (though probably not in Spanish) "He buscado por todas partes la ciudad soñada, y al fin la he encontrado en Ronda" and "No hay nada más inesperado en España que esta ciudad salvaje y montañera" ("I have sought everywhere the city of my dreams, and I have finally found it in Ronda" and "There is nothing that is more startling in Spain than this wild and mountainous city.")
Between October 1911 and May 1912, Rilke stayed at the Castle Duino, near Trieste, home of Princess Marie of Thurn und Taxis. There, in 1912, he began the poem cycle called the Duino Elegies, which would remain unfinished for a decade because of a long-lasting creativity crisis.
The outbreak of World War I surprised Rilke during a stay in Germany. He was unable to return to Paris, where his property was confiscated and auctioned. He spent the greater part of the war in Munich. From 1914 to 1916 he had a turbulent affair with painter Lou Albert-Lasard. Rilke was called up at the beginning of 1916, and had to undertake basic training in Vienna. Influential friends interceded on his behalf, and he was transferred to the War Records Office and discharged from the military on 9 June 1916. He spent the subsequent time once again in Munich, interrupted by a stay on Hertha Koenig's Gut Bockel in Westphalia. The traumatic experience of military service, a reminder of the horrors of the military academy, almost completely silenced him as a poet.
On 11 June 1919, Rilke traveled from Munich to Switzerland. The outward motive was an invitation to lecture in Zürich, but the real reason was the wish to escape the post-war chaos and take up his work on the Duino Elegies once again. The search for a suitable and affordable place to live proved to be very difficult. Among other places, Rilke lived in Soglio, Locarno, and Berg am Irchel. Only in mid-1921 was he able to find a permanent residence in the Chateau de Muzot in the commune of Veyras, close to Sierre in Valais. In an intense creative period, Rilke completed the Duino Elegies within several weeks in February 1922. Before and after, Rilke rapidly wrote both parts of the poem cycle Sonnets to Orpheus containing 55 entire sonnets. Both works together have often been taken as constituting the high points of Rilke's work. In May 1922, Rilke's patron Werner Reinhart bought and renovated Muzot so that Rilke could live there rent-free.
During this time, Reinhart introduced Rilke to his protégée, Australian violinist Alma Moodie. Rilke was so impressed with her playing that he wrote in a letter: "What a sound, what richness, what determination. That and the Sonnets to Orpheus, those were two strings of the same voice. And she plays mostly Bach! Muzot has received its musical christening..."
From 1923 on, Rilke increasingly had to struggle with health problems that necessitated many long stays at a sanatorium in Territet, near Montreux, on Lake Geneva. His long stay in Paris between January and August 1925 was an attempt to escape his illness through a change in location and living conditions. Despite this, numerous important individual poems appeared in the years 1923–1926 (including Gong and Mausoleum), as well as the abundant lyrical work in French.
Only shortly before his death was Rilke's illness diagnosed as leukemia. He suffered ulcerous sores in his mouth, pain troubled his stomach and intestines, and he struggled with increasingly low spirits. Open-eyed, he died in the arms of his doctor on December 29, 1926 in the Valmont Sanatorium in Switzerland. He was buried on 2 January 1927 in the Raron cemetery to the west of Visp.
Rilke had chosen as his own epitaph this poem:
Rose, oh reiner Widerspruch, Lust,
Niemandes Schlaf zu sein unter soviel
Rose, oh pure contradiction, delight
of being no one's sleep under so
A myth developed surrounding his death and roses, which we see as a constant motif in his work. It was said: "To honour a visitor, the Egyptian beauty Nimet Eloui, Rilke [had] gathered some roses from his garden. While doing so, he pricked his hand on a thorn. This small wound failed to heal, grew rapidly worse, soon his entire arm was swollen, and his other arm became affected as well", and so he died.
Rilke is numbered among the most significant poets in the German language. His haunting images focus on the difficulty of communion with the ineffable in an age of disbelief, solitude, and profound anxiety: themes that tend to position him as a transitional figure between the traditional and the modernist poets.
Figures from Greek mythology (e.g. Apollo, Hermes, Orpheus) recur as motifs in his poems and are depicted in original interpretations (e.g. in the poem Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes, Rilke's Eurydice, numbed and dazed by death, does not recognize her lover Orpheus, who descended to hell to recover her). Other recurring figures in Rilke's poems are angels, roses and a character of a poet and his creative work.
Quoting Susan Haskins: "It was Rilke's explicit belief that Christ was not divine, was entirely human, and deified only on Calvary, expressed in an unpublished poem of 1893, and referred to in other poems of the same period, which allowed him to portray Christ's love for Mary Magdalen, though remarkable, as entirely human."
- Leben und Lieder (Life and Songs) (1894)
- Larenopfer (Lares' Sacrifice) (1895)
- Traumgekrönt (Dream-Crowned) (1897)
- Advent (Advent) (1898)
- Das Stunden-Buch (The Book of Hours)
- Das Buch vom mönchischen Leben (The Book of Monastic Life) (1899)
- Das Buch von der Pilgerschaft (The Book of Pilgrimage) (1901)
- Geldbaum (1901)
- Das Buch von der Armut und vom Tode (The Book of Poverty and Death) (1903)
- Das Buch der Bilder (The Book of Images) (4 Parts, 1902–1906)
- Neue Gedichte (New Poems) (1907)
- Duineser Elegien (Duino Elegies) (1922)
- Sonette an Orpheus (Sonnets to Orpheus) (1922)
- Geschichten vom Lieben Gott (Stories of God) (Collection of tales, 1900)
- Auguste Rodin (1903)
- Die Weise von Liebe und Tod des Cornets Christoph Rilke (The Lay of the Love and Death of Cornet Christoph Rilke) (Lyric story, 1906)
- Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge (The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge) (Novel, 1910)
- Sämtliche Werke in 12 Bänden (Complete Works in 12 Volumes), published by Rilke Archive in association with Ruth Sieber-Rilke, edited by Ernst Zinn. Frankfurt am Main (1976)
- Werke (Works). Annotated edition in four volumes with supplementary fifth volume, published by Manfred Engel, Ulrich Fülleborn, Dorothea Lauterbach, Horst Nalewski and August Stahl. Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig (1996 and 2003)
- Collected letters
- Gesammelte Briefe in sechs Bänden (Collected Letters in Six Volumes), published by Ruth Sieber-Rilke and Carl Sieber. (6 volumes), Leipzig: 1936–1939.
- Briefe (Letters), published by the Rilke Archive in Weimar. (2 volumes), Wiesbaden: 1950; reprinted 1987 in single volume.
- Briefe in Zwei Bänden (Letters in Two Volumes) (2 volumes), Frankfurt and Leipzig: Horst Nalewski, 1991.
- Other letters
- Briefe an Auguste Rodin (Insel Verlag, 1928)
- Briefwechsel mit Marie von Thurn und Taxis (edited by Ernst Zinn with a forward by Rudolf Kassner). (2 volumes), Editions Max Niehans, 1954.
- Briefwechsel mit Thankmar von Münchhausen 1913 bis 1925 (Suhrkamp Insel Verlag, 2004)
- Briefwechsel mit Rolf von Ungern-Sternberg und weitere Dokumente zur Übertragung der Stances von Jean Moréas (Suhrkamp Insel Verlag, 2002)
In English translationEdit
- Poems (translated by Jessie Lamont; illustrated by Dugald Stewart Walker). Boston: Tobias Wright, 1918.
- Rainer Maria Rilke, Duino Elegies and The Sonnets To Orpheus (translated by A. Poulin, Jr.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. ISBN 0-395-25058-7
- Selected Poetry (edited & translated by Stephen Mitchell, Introduction by Robert Hass . New York: Vintage, reissue edition 1989.
- Selected Poems (edited and translated by Robert Bly). New York, 1981.
- The Unknown Rilke (translated by Franz Wright). Oberlin College Press, expanded edition 1990.
- New Poems = Neue Gedichte (translated by Stephen Cohn). Manchester, UK: Carcanet Press, 1992.
- The Book of Fresh Beginnings: Selected poems (translated by David Young). Oberlin College Press, 1994. ISBN 0-932440-68-1
- The Essential Rilke (edited and translated by Galway Kinnell and Hannah Liebmann). Hopewell, NJ: 1999.
- Uncollected Poems (translated by Edward Snow). New York: North Point Press, 1996.
- The Poetry of Rilke' (translated by Edward Snow). New York: North Point Press, New York, 2009.
- Two Prague Stories (translated by Isabel Cole). Český Těšín: Vitalis, 2002.
- Pictures of God: Rilke's religious poetry (edited and translated by Annemarie S. Kidder). Livonia, MI: 2005.
- "Rilke's Late Poetry: Duino Elegies / Sonnets to Orpheus / Selected last poems" (edited and translated by Graham Good). Vancouver, BC: Ronsdale Press, 2005.
- Freedman, Ralph (1996) Life of a Poet: Rainer Maria Rilke, New York.
- Prater, Donald (1994) A Ringing Glass: The Life of Rainer Maria Rilke, Oxford University Press
- Tapper, Mirjam Resa med Rilke, Mita bokförlag
- Torgersen, Eric (1998) Dear Friend: Rainer Maria Rilke and Paula Modersohn-Becker, Northwestern University Press
- Leeder, Karen, and Robert Vilain, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Rilke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0521705080
- Erika, A and Metzger, Michael (2001) A Companion to the Works of Rainer Maria Rilke, Rochester
- Engel, Manfred and Lauterbach, Dorothea (ed) Rilke Handbuch: Leben – Werk – Wirkung, Stuttgart: Metzler, 2004.
- Goldsmith, Ulrich, ed. (1980). Rainer Maria Rilke, a verse concordance to his complete lyrical poetry. Leeds: W.S. Maney.
- Hutchinson, Ben. Rilke's Poetics of Becoming (Oxford: Legenda, 2006).
- Mood, John. (2009) A New Reading of Rilke's "Elegies": Affirming the Unity of "life-and-death" Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press ISBN 9780773438644.
- Pechota Vuilleumier, Cornelia (2010) Heim und Unheimlichkeit bei Rainer Maria Rilke und Lou Andreas-Salomé. Literarische Wechselwirkungen. Olms, Hildesheim ISBN 9783487142524
- Schwarz, Egon. (1981) Poetry and politics in the works of Rainer Maria Rilke. Frederick Ungar ISBN 9780804428118.
- Numerous contributors. (2007) A Reconsideration of Rainer Maria Rilke, Agenda Poetry Magazine, vol. 42 nos. 3-4, ISBN978-0-902400-83-2.
- ↑ "Life of a Poet: Rainer Maria Rilke" at www.washingtonpost.com
- ↑ Arana, R. Victoria (2008). The Facts on File Companion to World Poetry: 1900 to the Present. Infobase. p. 377. ISBN 9780816064571.
- ↑ Anna A. Tavis. Rilke's Russia: A Cultural Encounter. Northwestern University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8101-1466-6. p. 1.
- ↑ Life of a Poet: Rainer Maria Rilke by Ralph Freedman, Northwestern University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8101-1543-3, p. 505
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 R. M. Rilke: Music as Metaphor
- ↑ Photo and description
- ↑ Rainer Maria Rilke: a brief biographical overview
- ↑ "Nirgends ein Führer" (in German). Der Spiegel (21/1957). 22 May 1957
- ↑ "Elegien gegen die Angstträume des Alltags" by Hellmuth Karasek (in German). Der Spiegel (47/1981). 11 November 1981; Karasek calls Rilke a friend of the Fascists.
- ↑ Rainer Maria Rilke, Lettres Milanaises 1921-1926. Edited by Renée Lang. Paris: Librairie Plon 1956
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Excerpt from "Reading Rilke – Reflections on the Problems of Translation" by William H. Gass (1999) ISBN 0375403124; featured in The New York Times 2000. Accessed 18 August 2010 Template:Subscription
- ↑ Liza Knapp, "Tsvetaeva's Marine Mary Magdalene" (The Slavic and East European Journal, Volume 43, Number 4; Winter, 1999).
- ↑ Susan Haskins, Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor (Riverhead Trade; 1995).
- ↑ Susan Haskins, Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor, p. 361 (HarperCollins; 1993 ISBN 0 00 215535 4).
- Rainer Maria Rilke profile and 3 poems (n translation) at the Academy of American Poets.
- Rainer Maria Rilke 1875-1926 at the Poetry Foundation
- Rilke in Poetry: A magazine of vrese, 1912-1922: "Charles the Twelfth of Sweden Rides in the Ukraine" (translated by Jessie Lamont), "What Will You Do?" (translated by Babette Deutsch & Avrahm Yarmolinsky)
- Rainer Maria Rilke at Amazon.com
- "Rilke" by Clive James in Slate Magazine 23 March 2007
- "Angels to Radios: On Rainer Maria Rilke", By Ange Mlinko. The Nation 24 November 2009
- "Rilke the Clay Pot" by Robert Vilain, The Times (16 September 2009)
- "The life of a poet" article in The Washington Post 1996
- International Rilke Society (German-language site)
- The Big Three: Rilke's correspondence with Tsvetayeva and Pasternak. New York Review of Books 5 December 1985
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