Thomson William Gunn (29 August 1929 - 25 April 2004) was an Anglo-American poet, praised both for his early verses in England, where he was associated with The Movement, and his later poetry in America, even after moving toward a looser, free-verse style.
Life[edit | edit source]
Gunn was born in Gravesend, Kent, the son of Bert Gunn. Both of his parents were journalists, who divorced when he was 10 years old. His life was marked by tragedy when, as a teenager, his mother committed suicide. It was she who had sparked in him a love of reading, including an interest in the work of Christopher Marlowe, John Keats, John Milton, and Alfred Tennyson, along with several prose writers.
In his youth, he attended University College School in Hampstead, London, then spent 2 years in the British national service and 6 months in Paris. Later, he studied English literature at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduated in 1953, and published his first collection of verse, Fighting Terms, the following year. Among several critics who praised the work, John Press wrote, "This is one of the few volumes of postwar verse that all serious readers of poetry need to possess and to study."
In 1954, Gunn emigrated to the United States to teach writing at Stanford University and to remain close to his partner, Mike Kitay, whom he had met while at college. Gunn taught at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1958 to 1966 and again from 1973 to 1990. After relocating from England to San Francisco, Gunn, who became openly gay, wrote about gay-related topics – particularly in his most famous work, The Man With Night Sweats in 1992 –as well as drug use, sex, and topics related to his bohemian lifestyle.
Writing[edit | edit source]
As a young man, Gunn's poetry was associated with The Movement, and later with the work of Ted Hughes. His poetry, together with that of Philip Larkin, Donald Davie, and other members of The Movement, has been described as "...emphasizing purity of diction, and a neutral tone...encouraging a more spare language and a desire to represent a seeing of the world with fresh eyes."
During the 1960s and 1970s, Gunn's verse became increasingly bold in its exploration of drugs, homosexuality, and poetic form. He enjoyed the bohemian lifestyle in San Francisco so much that Edmund White described him as "the last of the commune dwellers [...] serious and intellectual by day and druggy and sexual by night". While he continued to sharpen his use of the metrical forms that characterized his early career, he became more and more interested in syllabic and free verse.
"He’s possibly the only poet to have written a halfway decent quintain while on LSD, and he’s certainly one of the few to profess genuine admiration for both Yvor Winters (the archformalist) and Allen Ginsberg (the arch ... well, Allen Ginsberg)", critic Daniel Orr has written. "This is, even for the poetry world, a pretty odd background."
- "It is despair that nothing cannot be
- Flares in the mind and leaves a smoky mark
- Of dread.
- Look upward. Neither firm nor free
- Purposeless matter hovers in the dark." ("The Annihilation of Nothing")
Gunn, who praised his Stanford mentor Yvor Winters for keeping "both Rule and Energy in view, / Much power in each, most in the balanced two," found a productive tension — rather than imaginative restriction – in the technical demands of traditional poetic forms. He is one of the few contemporary poets (James Merrill would be another) to write serious poetry in heroic couplets — a form whose use in the twentieth century is generally restricted to light verse and epigrammatic wit. In the 1960s, however, he came to experiment increasingly with free verse, and the discipline of writing to a specific set of visual images, coupled with the liberation of free verse, constituted a new source of rule and energy in Gunn's work: a poem such as "Pierce Street" in his next collection, Touch (1967), has a grainy, photographic fidelity, while the title-poem uses hesitant, sinuous free verse to portray a scene of newly acknowledged intimacy shared with his sleeping lover (and the cat).
The poet's major stylistic change in his shift toward free verse roughly within a decade that included much of the 1960s, combined with the other changes in his life — his move from England to America, from academic Cambridge to bohemian San Francisco, his becoming openly gay, his drug-taking, his writing about the "urban underbelly" — caused many to conjecture how his lifestyle was affecting his work "British reviewers who opposed Gunn’s technical shifts blamed California, just as American critics would, later on, connect his adventurous lifestyle with his more 'relaxed' versification," according to Orr, who added that even as of 2009, critics were contrasting "Gunn’s libido with his tight metrics — as if no one had ever written quatrains about having sex before".
In Gunn's next book, Jack Straw's Castle (1976), the dream modulates into nightmare, related partly to his actual anxiety-dreams about moving house, and partly to the changing American political climate. "But my life," he wrote, "insists on continuities — between America and England, between free verse and metre, between vision and everyday consciousness."
The Passages of Joy reaffirmed those continuities: it contains sequences about London in 1964-65 and about time spent in New York in 1970. The Occasions of Poetry, a selection of his essays and introductions, appeared at the same time.
10 years were to pass before his next and most famous collection, The Man With Night Sweats (1992), dominated by AIDS-related elegies. Neil Powell praised the book: "Gunn restores poetry to a centrality it has often seemed close to losing, by dealing in the context of a specific human catastrophe with the great themes of life and death, coherently, intelligently, memorably. One could hardly ask for more." Although AIDS was a focus of much of his later work, he remained HIV-negative himself.
In 1993 Gunn published a 2nd collection of occasional essays, Shelf Life, and his substantial Collected Poems. His final book of poetry was Boss Cupid (2000).
5 years after his death, a new edition of Gunn's Selected Poems was published, edited by August Kleinzahler.
Recognition[edit | edit source]
Gunn received the Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize in 1993. In 2003 he was awarded the David Cohen Prize for Literature together with Beryl Bainbridge. He also received the Levinson Prize, an Arts Council of Great Britain Award, a Rockefeller Award, the W.H. Smith Award, the PEN (Los Angeles) Prize for Poetry, the Sara Teasdale Prize, a Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Award, the Forward Prize, and fellowships from the Guggenheim and MacArthur foundations.
Publications[edit | edit source]
Poetry[edit | edit source]
- Poems by Thom Gunn. Oxford, UK: Fantasy Press, 1953.
- Fighting Terms: A Selection. Oxford, UK: Fantasy Press, 1954; Bancroft Press, 1983.
- revised edition, London: Faber, 1962.
- The Sense of Movement. London: Faber, 1957; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959.
- My Sad Captains, and other poems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.
- Selected Poems. London: Faber, 1962.
- A Geography. Iowa City, IA: Stone Wall Press, 1966.
- Positives (photographs by brother, Ander Gunn). London: Faber, 1966; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.
- Touch. London: Faber, 1967; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
- The Garden of the Gods.Cambridge, MA: Pym-Randall Press, 1968.
- The Explorers. Crediton, Devon, UK: R. Gilbertson, 1969.
- The Fair in the Woods. Oxford, UK: Sycamore Press, 1969.
- Poems, 1950-1966: A Selection. London: Faber, 1969.
- Sunlight. New York: Albondocani Press, 1969.
- Last Days at Teddington. London: Poem-of-the-Month Club, 1971.
- Moly. London: Faber, 1971.
- (With others) Corgi Modern Poets in Focus 5 (edited by Dannie Abse). London: Corgi, 1971.
- Poem after Chaucer. New York: Albondocani Press, 1971.
- Moly [&] My Sad Captains. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1973.
- Mandrakes. London: Rainbow Press, 1973.
- Songbook. New York: Albondocani Press, 1973.
- To the Air. Boston: David R. Godine, 1974.
- Jack Straw's Castle. New York: F. Hallman, 1975
- expanded as Jack Straw's Castle and Other Poems. Farrar, Straus, 1976.
- The Missed Beat. West Burke, VT: Janus Press, 1976.
- Games of Chance. Omaha, NE: Abattoir, 1979.
- Selected Poems 1950-1975. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1979.
- Bally Power Play. Toronto: Massey Press, 1979.
- Talbot Road. New York: Helikon Press, 1981.
- The Menace. San Francisco, CA: ManRoot, 1982.
- The Passages of Joy. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1982.
- Lament. Champaign, IL: Doe Press, 1985.
- Sidewalks. New York: Albondocani Press, 1985.
- The Hurtless Trees. New York: Jordan Davies, 1986.
- Night Sweats. Florence, KY: R.L. Barth, 1987.
- Undesirables. Youngstown, OH: Pig Iron Press, 1988.
- At the Barriers. New York: NADJA, 1989.
- Death's Door. Red Hydra, 1989.
- The Man with Night Sweats. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1992.
- Unsought Intimacies: Poems of 1991. Berkeley, CA: Peter Koch, 1993.
- Collected Poems. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1994.
- Boss Cupid. London: Faber, 2000.
- Site Specific: 17 'neighbourhood' poems. Menlo Park, CA: Occasional Works, 2000.
- Poems (edited by August Kleinzahler). London: Faber, 2007.
- Selected Poems (edited by August Kleinzahler). New York: Farrar, Straus, 2009.
Non-fiction[edit | edit source]
- The Occasions of Poetry: Essays in criticism and autobiography (edited by Clive Wilmer). New York: Farrar, Straus, 1982
- expanded edition, San Francisco, CA: North Point Press, 1985.
- Shelf Life: Essays, memoirs, and an interview. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1993.
- Thom Gunn in conversation with James Campbell. London: Between the Lines, 2000.
- At the Barriers: On the poetry of Thom Gunn (edited by Joshua Weiner). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Edited[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Campbell, J. Thom Gunn in conversation with James Campbell, Between The Lines, London, 2000. ISBN 1-903291-00-3
- Thom Gunn, Shelf Life: Essays, memoirs and an interview. Poets on Poetry, 1993
Fonds[edit | edit source]
- Guide to the Thom Gunn archive at The Bancroft Library
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Web page titled "Thom Gunn" at the website of the Academy of American Poets retrieved 12 July 2009
- Guthmann, Edward, "A Poet's Life Part Two", San Francisco Chronicle, 26 April 2005, retrieved 17 July 2009
- Norton Anthology of English Literature
- Norton Anthology of English Literature
- Orr, Daniel, "On Poetry" column, "Too Close to Touch", New York Times Book Review, 12 July 2009 (published 9 July online), retrieved 12 July 2009
- Search results = au:Thom Gunn, WorldCat, OCLC Online Computer Library Center Inc. Web, Jan. 19, 2014.
- Thom Gunn 1929-2004, Poetry Foundation, Web, Sep. 27, 2012.
[edit | edit source]
- "The Differences" at A Sudden Line of Poetry
- Thom Gunn profile and 4 poems at the Academy of American Poets
- Thom Gunn 1929-2004 at the Poetry Foundation
- Thom Gunn at PoemHunter (15 poems)
- Audio /video
- Thom Gunn (1929-2004) profile and poems written and audio at The Poetry Archive
- Thom Gunn at Amazon.com
- Thom Gunn in the Encyclopedia Britannica
- Thom Gunn at NNDB
- Obituary of Thom Gunn U.S. Poet Laureate (Robert Pinsky)
- Obituary of Thom Gunn, Daily Telegraph
- Obituary of Thom Gunn, San Francisco Chronicle. "A Poet's Life, Part One", "A Poet's Life Part Two"
- Study Guide to Gunn's poetry
- Clive Wilmer (Summer 1995). "Thom Gunn, The Art of Poetry No. 72". The Paris Review. http://www.theparisreview.org/interviews/1626/the-art-of-poetry-no-72-thom-gunn.
- Selected poems of Fulke Greville (edited by Thom Gunn) reviewed by Joshua Weiner.
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